Purdue University researchers detect new Zika virus structure
Food & Health   Tuesday, January 10, 2017 IST
 
Purdue University researchers detect new Zika virus structure

Purdue University researchers detect new Zika virus structure

In a step that would help better understand how the Zika virus infects host cells and spreads, researchers have discovered a new structure of the deadly virus.

Researchers from Purdue University analysed the high-resolution structure of the immature form of the Zika virus.

The research team found that the immature Zika virus had a similar structure to other related viruses, such as the West Nile virus and dengue fever.

The team of study led by Michael Rossmann and Richard Kuhn, both professors in Purdue's Department of Biological Sciences, comprised of postdoctoral research associate Vidya Mangala Prasad.

It is, therefore, probable that the immature form of Zika also plays a role in virus infection and spread," said Michael Rossmann.

Zika belongs to a family of viruses called flaviviruses, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis viruses.

The study suggests that while only the mature forms of flaviviruses are considered infectious, the virus population secreted from host cells is a mixture of mature, partially mature and immature virus particles.

I think these findings open the door to begin to explore the assembly process of the virus," said Richard Kuhn, director of the Purdue Institute for Inflammation, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, in the release. "We see clear differences between the structure of the immature virus and the mature virus. Not only are there differences in the outer structure, but the inner core must also undergo some significant changes during maturation. We need to study what these changes are and why they occur."

To determine the molecular structure, the team used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy, which allowed the researchers to observe the virus at a resolution of 9 Ångstroms, a high enough resolution to note tiny structural details.

Zika virus has been linked with microcephaly – a birth defect - which causes babies to be born with abnormally small heads and also with the autoimmune disorder Guillan-Barré syndrome.



 
 
skipping breakfast can be dangerous
Food & Health   Tuesday, January 10, 2017 IST
 
skipping breakfast can be dangerous

skipping breakfast can be dangerous

Is it “too early” to eat? Is there no time before school? Your youngsters is also putt themselves in danger of deficiency disease by skipping breakfast.

A study by the King’s school London found that youngsters UN agency skip breakfast often might not be overwhelming the counseled daily amounts of key nutrients needed for growth and development.

Children UN agency Greek deity breakfast daily were deemed to own overall superior nutritionary profiles compared to those that didn’t. whereas the study was unable to spot a causative link, these youngsters were found to own higher daily intakes of key nutrients like pteroylmonoglutamic acid (important for the event of genetic material), calcium, iron and iodine (key within the development of thyroid function) than youngsters UN agency skipped breakfast.

The team of researchers used food diaries collected for the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling programme between 2008 and 2012 from a gaggle of 802 youngsters aged four - ten years and 884 youngsters aged eleven - eighteen years. Nutrient intake was assessed employing a food composition databank from the Department of Health. Breakfast was thought-about as consumption of over a hundred calories between vi and 9am.

31.5% of these UN agency skipped breakfast didn't meet even the lower counseled nutrient intake (LRNI) of iron compared to solely four.4% of breakfast-consuming youngsters.

Children UN agency Greek deity breakfast daily were deemed to own overall superior nutritionary profiles compared to those that didn’t. (Shutterstock)
19% didn't meet LRNI for metal, compared to a pair of.9% of breakfast overwhelming youngsters, while 21.5% didn't meet lower levels for iodine, compared to three.3% of breakfast-consuming youngsters.

No youngsters UN agency consumed breakfast daily had a pteroylmonoglutamic acid intake below their LRNI compared to seven.3% of these UN agency skipped breakfast.

The study compared breakfast habits and nutrients among individual participants and showed that, in younger youngsters (4-10 years old), on days once breakfast was consumed, youngsters had higher intakes of pteroylmonoglutamic acid, calcium, vitamin C and iodine compared to their breakfast-skipping days. Out of those same nutrients, for older youngsters (11-18 years old) solely metal intakes were higher on breakfast-consuming days.

Authors have attributed these findings to higher levels of parental management over consumption habits at a young age. there's conjointly the likelihood of mis-reporting in food diaries, notably in older youngsters UN agency reportable their own intakes. Some analyses were perennial to omit implausible levels of energy intake wherever potential.

Senior author Gerda Pot aforesaid that this study provided proof that breakfast is vital for fogeys to confirm that their youngsters are becoming the nutrition they have.

The study conjointly showed that solely vi.5% of four - ten year olds uncomprehensible breakfast daily, compared with nearly twenty seventh of 11- eighteen year olds. information conjointly urged that ladies were a lot of possible to miss breakfast than boys and family financial gain was found to be higher within the families of youngsters consumption breakfast daily.

The study is printed within the British Journal of Nutrition.



 
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